Key Figures for the Environment

As in previous years we are also reporting important environmental key figures of production for the year under review 2016. 

Selected environmental data of the Volkswagen Group are presented here in aggregate form. The data are determined, checked and released to the production locations on the basis of a group-internal standard (VW standard 98 000). In order to increase the degree of precision and the consistency of the information gained, the gathering of the environment-relevant consumption and emission data is subject to a continuous improvement process. This applies in particular to that information that has to be determined with the aid of special calculation algorithms. Furthermore, the values for the December of the past year can contain an estimated portion if for instance it is based on settlements from energy suppliers or waste removers, that at the time of the data gathering were not available. These estimated portions will be replaced at the next data collection by the then known December values.

In analogy to the company-internal environmental strategy enforcement, the time series depicted refer to the base year 2010. The current year under review and the corresponding previous year complete the reporting period. 

In total, the environmental data from the production locations are being collected. In addition, starting from the data year 2016 the production locations of Września (Volkswagen Poznań Sp..z o.o.), Września (SITECH Sp. z o.o.), San Jos. Chiapa (Audi M.xico S.A. de C.V) and Amphur Pluakdaeng Rayong (Ducati Motor (Thailand) Co. Ltd.) were included in the collection.

The data from the category “Private and light commercial vehicles” for the years 2010, 2015 and 2016 are reported as in the Volkswagen annual report. The data of the brands Scania AB, MAN SE, Ducati Motor Holding S.p.A. and the VW Kraftwerk GmbH are reported in the category “Other group divisions”. The respective proportions are presented differentiated in the charts. If not reported otherwise, all producing locations of the Group as well as the power plants and boiler houses operated by Volkswagen AG at the Wolfsburg, Kassel and Hanover locations are taken into account.  

However, only 112 of the 120 Group production locations are included in the coverage of the data. No data is available for the seven Regional Product Centres of Scania or for the Bangalore location of MAN. These correspond to approx. 0.15% of the employees of the producing locations and thus have no relevant influence on the key figures of the Group. 

The Volkswagen Group is essentially an automotive manufacturer that produces private and light commercial vehicles as well as heavy commercial vehicles and buses. But in the MAN SE marine propulsion engines and power plant components are also produced. Due to this product diversity the overall environmental impacts cannot summarily refer to the production quantity of the vehicles. For this reason the presentation of the relative key figures occurs only for the category “Private and light commercial vehicles”. Their production quantity in the year 2016 came to 10,219,025 vehicles. In addition, 186,067 heavy commercial vehicles were produced.

The changing production quantities and the associated changes in the utilization of the locations are reflected in the changes to the absolute values of many indicators. An improvement of specific values could be achieved for some indicators through measures to increase efficiency.

Relevant, but not able to be influenced, are the weather-related influences on the consumption of resources.  This above all impacts the room heating requirements, both for the production sites and for the indirect sectors of production since the annual mean temperatures have an impact on the direct consumption of energy sources and of externally procured energy quantities.

The specific values are thus influenced by various aspects. On the one hand the absolute consumption or emissions can change, on the other rising or falling production quantities at the individual production locations influence the key figure trends.

Energy consumption*

in million MWh/year

Graphic: Energy consumption in million MWh/year
*Cars and light commercial vehicles and other divisions.

Energy consumption*

in kWh/vehicle

Graphic: Energy consumption in kWh/vehicle
*Cars and light commercial vehicles.

The total energy consumption since 2010 has risen due to the continuous increase in the production quantity. 

The consumption of electrical energy has also risen in comparison to 2010. The electrical energy consumption per vehicle could be reduced since 2010 through measures to increase efficiency. 

The heat consumption is divided into the room heat requirements for the heating of production plants and their indirect sectors and into the room heat requirements that are used for technical processes. Since the room heat is the greater share of the total heat requirements, the development of the total heat requirements is strongly influenced by the course of weather conditions. 

Various initiatives coupled with reduced heating demand have caused specific heat consumption per vehicle to fall since 2010.

The already named effects due to a colder weather phase and an increase in production quantity lead to a rise in the absolute consumption of fuel gas for production processes. Also associated with this is a slight worsening in the specific value per vehicle.

Direct CO2 emissions (Scope 1)*

in million tonnes/year

Graphic: Direct CO2 emissions (Scope 1) in million tonnes/year
* Cars and light commercial vehicles and other divisions.

Direct CO2 emissions (Scope 1)*

in kg/vehicle

Graphic: Direct CO2 emissions (Scope 1) in kg/vehicle
*Cars and light commercial vehicles.

Despite the recording of new production locations and of the associated increased energy consumption, the direct CO2 emissions in the category private and light commercial vehicles and in the entire Group are on the decline since 2010.

The direct CO2 emissions are coupled with the burning of fossil fuels, whose use could be reduced. A reduction in the direct CO2 emissions per vehicle is also to be noted with the reduction in the absolute emissions quantity.

Not taken into account are the direct CO2 emissions of the official works vehicles. Work is currently being done on the worldwide uniform recording of emissions of the official works vehicles fleet. Initial calculations for the Volkswagen Germany control volume indicate an increase in the total CO2 emissions of 3.4% in the control volume investigated.

CO2 emissions (Scope 1 and 2)*

in million tonnes/year

Graphic: CO2 emissions (Scope 1 and 2) in million tonnes/year
*Cars and light commercial vehicles and other divisions.

CO2 emissions (Scope 1 and 2)*

in kg/vehicle

Graphic: CO2 emissions (Scope 1 and 2) in kg/vehicle
*Cars and light commercial vehicles.

Starting in 2010, due to the increases in consumption for electrical energy, heat and fuel gas for production, the overall CO2 emissions rose. The CO2 emissions per vehicle rose minimally from 2015 to 2016, but could be dramatically reduced since 2010. 

Via the valuation of the energy and heat consumption of the production locations with suitable CO2 emission factors, the CO2 emissions generated by the power plants and boiler houses operated by Volkswagen AG – from the electricity and heat generation for the production locations of Volkswagen AG – also flow into the overall quantity of CO2 emissions. 

As a special feature in the region of China, starting in 2013 CO2 factors are being used due to external specifications that do not reflect the rising share of renewable energies.

Not included in the presentations of the CO2 emissions are the emissions that come about due to the power plants operated by Volkswagen AG as district heating and electricity delivery to third parties. For 2016 this is 374,118 tonnes of CO2 emissions.

CO2 equivalents*

in million tonnes/year

Graphic: CO2 equivalents in million tonnes/year
*Cars and light commercial vehicles and other divisions.

CO2 equivalents*

in kg/vehicle

Graphic: CO2 equivalents* in kg/vehicle
*Cars and light commercial vehicles.

The determination of CO2 equivalents is based on calculations on the basis of specific global warming potential for the most frequently emitted refrigerants and greenhouse gases. Since these emissions do not appear continuously, it can come to larger fluctuations in a time series. However, these emissions have no significant influence on the CO2 emissions of the Group.

GHG emissions (Scope 3)

in the Volkswagen Group (cars and light commercial vehicles)

    20161 20151
No. Category tonnes
CO2
% tonnes CO2 %
1 Purchased goods and services  59,415,034 18.2 55,980,353 17.7
2 Capital goods 13,767,328 4.2 13,027,840 4.1
3 Fuel/energy 1,363,103 0.4 1,322,836 0.4
4 Upstream transportation and distribution (U2,3) 3,854,829 1.2 3,854,829 1.2
5 Waste generated in operations 2,137,095 0.7 1,996,517 0.6
6 Business travel 668,894 0.2 652,320 0.2
7 Employee commuting 953,480 0.3 939,902 0.3
8 Upstream leased assets (U3) Not reported 0.0 Not reported 0.0
9 Downstream transportation and distribution (D4) Not reported 0.0 Not reported 0.0
10 Processing of sold products 13,000 0.004 13,000 0.004
11 Use phase (150,000 km)5  241,679,689 73.6 233,766,999 74.1
12 End-of-life treatment2 1,606,582 0.5 1,567,437 0.5
13 Downstream leased assets (D4) 1,033,703 0.3 903,449 0.3
14 Franchises 1,550,000 0.5 1,550,000 0.5
15 Investments Not reported 0.0 Not reported 0.0
  Total of reported Scope 3 emissions 328,408,918 100 315,575,482 100
   
1 Individual figures are rounded. This may lead to minor discrepancies in the sum total.
2 Figure based on the 2016 CDP report – the figure for 2016 will appear in the 2017 CDP report.
3 Upstream.
4 Downstream.
5 Well-to-wheel.

In agreement with the Scope 3 Standards published with the World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) and the World Resources Institute, Volkswagen reports CO2 emissions on twelve of in total 15 Scope 3 categories, whereby we count among the world's leading companies. The calculations have yielded that in the emission categories of “Purchased goods and services” and “Utilization phase” approx. 92% of the entire Scope 3 volume is accrued. The calculation of CO2 emissions in the use phase is based on a Group fleet value, which represents the global vehicle inventory in the four large regions (EU28, USA, Brazil, China). In order to get as complete a picture as possible, Volkswagen also records the emissions in this category that are accrued during manufacture and the transport of fuels (well to tank).

CO2 emissions*

of the Volkswagen Group’s European (EU 28) New Passenger Car Fleet in g/km

Graphic: CO2 emmisions
*Subject to official publication by the European Commission. (”NEDC test cycle“).

The EU private-vehicle new-car fleet of the Volkswagen Group (excluding Lamborghini and Bentley) in the year under review emitted on average 120.4g CO2/km, thus falling under the European ambient standard for 2015 of 130g CO2/km by 9.6g and almost reaching its own objective of 120g. The Lamborghini and Bentley brands each own an independent fleet within the context of the European CO2 legislation and have also adhered to their individual target values. The fleet value in the USA is at 162g CO2/km, in China at 153g CO2/km and in Brazil at 131g CO2/km.

VOC emissions*

in tonnes/year

Graphic: VOC emissions in tonnes/year
*Cars and light commercial vehicles and other divisions.

VOC emissions*

in kg/vehicle

Graphic: VOC emissions in kg/vehicle
*Cars and light commercial vehicles.

The painting processes are primarily responsible for the VOC emissions.  In modern painting plants paints and process materials are used that contain lower quantities of solvents. Plus, measures are taken in the painting processes to capture or eliminate emitted solvents. The process used the most is thermal afterburning the exhaust air which is downstream from the actual painting process. The ascertainment of emissions into the environment is based both on metrological analyses as well as on calculations.

Despite a rise in vehicle production since 2010 and the associated greater paint volume, it came to a reduction in the absolute VOC emissions. It was possible to dramatically reduce the emissions per vehicle.

Waste for disposal1, 2

in tonnes/year

Graphic: Waste for disposal in tonnes/year

Waste for disposal3

in kg/vehicle

Grafik: Abfall zur Beseitigung in kg/Fzg.
1 The bars for “Non-hazardous waste for disposal” and “Hazardous waste for disposal” indicate the share attributable to other Group divisions. This is not depicted for the other fractions, however, due to their minimal share in these amounts.
2 Cars and light commercial vehicles and other divisions.
3 Cars and light commercial vehicles.

Waste for recycling1, 2

in tonnes/year

Graphic: Waste for recycling in kg/vehicle

Waste for recycling3

in kg/vehicle

Grafik: Abfall zur Verwertung in kg/Fzg.
1 The bars for “Non-hazardous waste for recycling”, “Hazardous waste for recycling” and “Metallic waste” indicate the share attributable to other Group divisions. This is not depicted for the other fractions, however, due to their minimal share in these amounts.
2 Cars and light commercial vehicles and other divisions.
3 Cars and light commercial vehicles.

Due to the rise in production quantity compared to 2010 in the category of private and light commercial vehicles, the entire amount of dangerous and non-dangerous wastes generated also rose. The share of waste for removal contained in this category could be reduced from approx. 34% in 2010 to approx. 21% in 2016. In contrast the share of waste for recycling increased from approx. 66% in 2010 to approx. 79% in 2016. The increase in the share of recyclable waste is also the result of the waste strategy established in the Group that has a higher recycling ratio of waste as its goal. 

The absolute quantity of metallic “wastes”, which due to their complete recycling potential and due to the returns achieved from their sale are viewed internally as so-called “resources”, has risen over the entire reporting period since 2010.  The reason for this was the Group-wide increase in production. When considering all wastes, including the metallic wastes, the recovery rate lies at approx. 95%.

In the past year under review due to the operation of energy generation plants by the Volkswagen Kraftwerk GmbH, power plant residues in the amount of approx. 145,000 tonnes has been allocated to recycling.

Freshwater and wastewater*

in million m3/year

Graphic: Freshwater and wastewater in million m3/year
*Cars and light commercial vehicles and other divisions.

Freshwater and wastewater*

in m3/vehicle

Graphic: Freshwater and wastewater in m3/vehicle
*Cars and light commercial vehicles.

With the increase in the number of private and light commercial vehicles produced, the total consumption of fresh water has also risen in recent years. This increase in consumption is due to the integration of new locations into the reporting. Despite the rise in the number of Group locations, it was possible to continuously decrease the fresh-water consumption per vehicle in the reporting period since 2010. This was achieved through a variety of recycling measures and the introduction of production procedures requiring little water.

The quantity of wastewater accrued shows a similar pattern to that of the fresh water. Due to evaporative losses in the cooling towers and in the production process there are quantity differences between fresh and wastewater. The quantity of wastewater per private and light commercial vehicle produced could also be lowered.

Wastewater discharges1, 2

in million m3/year

Graphic: Wastewater discharges in million m3/year
1Cars and light commercial vehicles.
2In 2010, differentiated figures for the Group as a whole were not yet available.

Water withdrawal by source1, 2

in million m3/year

Graphic: Water withdrawal by source in million m3/year
1Cars and light commercial vehicles
2Figures for 2014 and 2015 include all Passenger Car and Commercial Vehicle locations; figures for 2010 only apply to Volkswagen AG and Volkswagen Sachsen GmbH locations, because differentiated figures were not yet available for all Group locations.

Depending on the location of the wastewater purification system, locations are differentiated as follows: as an indirect discharger those where the wastewater is discharged into the municipal sewage collection system for further cleaning, and as a direct discharger those that operate their own wastewater treatment system, thereby discharging the cleaned wastewater directly into a body of water.

Direct NOx and SO2 emissions*

in tonnes/year

Graphic: Direct NOx and SO2 emissions in tonnes/year
*Cars and light commercial vehicles and other divisions.

Direct NOx and SO2 emissions*

in g/vehicle

Graphic: Direct NOx and SO2 emissions in g/vehicle
*Cars and light commercial vehicles.

A clear decline in the absolute NOx values as well as in the NOx emissions is to be recorded per vehicle in the category of private and light commercial vehicles in the period from 2010 to 2016.

The strong decline in the direct SO2 emissions since the year 2010 is a result of changes in the positions regarding ownership in a power-generation plant and the replacement of coal as the fuel.

Particulate emissions*

in tonnes/year

Graphic: Particulate emissions in tonnes/year
*Cars and light commercial vehicles Europa (total dust).

Particulate emissions*

in g/vehicle

Graphic: Particulate emissions in g/vehicle
*Cars and light commercial vehicles Europa (total dust).

The development of airborne particulate emissions in the category private and light commercial vehicles at the European production locations of the Group are among other things connected to the increase in production.

Chemical Oxygen Demand
(COD)1, 2

in tonnes/year

Graphic: Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) in tonnes/year
1Cars and light commercial vehicles and other divisions.
2Other divisions have not been highlighted in the graphic due to the low proportions involved.

Chemical Oxygen Demand
(COD)*

in g/vehicle

Graphic: Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) in g/vehicle
*Cars and light commercial vehicles.

The absolute wastewater parameter “Chemical oxygen demand (COD)” develops similarly to the fresh-water consumption and wastewater amount key figures. This parameter is an indicator for the wastewater’s degree of contamination.

Environmental protection costs*

in € million/year

Graphic: Environmental protection costs in € million/year
*Volkswagen AG production locations in Germany.

Environmental protection costs*

in € million/vehicle

Graphic: Environmental protection costs in € million/vehicle
*Volkswagen AG production locations in Germany.

The environmental protection costs are reported for the German locations of Volkswagen AG.

When it comes to expenses for environmental protection measures, differentiation is made between investments and operation costs for the production-related environmental protection. Of the total investments the positions accounted to the environmental protection investments are those that are done with the sole or dominant objective of environmental protection. Differentiation is made between end-of-pipe and integrated investments. End-of-pipe environmental protection measures are separate plants separated from the remaining production process. They can be up- or downstream from the production process. In contrast to the end-of-pipe environmental protection measures, the integrated measures already reduce the environmental impact during the production phase of the product.

The reported operating costs solely concern production-related environmental protection measures that protect the environment from damaging influences by avoiding, reducing or removing emissions from the company. This includes, for instance, expenditures for the operation of plants that serve to protect the environment as well as expenditures for the plant-related measures.

Plants in the vicinity of nature conservation areas

Plant Distance (km) Area* (ha)
Braunschweig (D): Oker 0.8 53
Poznań, Logistics (PL): Dolina Cybiny 2.7 30
Chemnitz (D): Zwönitz 2.5 21.3
Poznań, Foundry (PL): Fortyfikacje-w- Poznańiu 6.7 40
Dresden (D): Mühlberg 1 8.3
Poznań, Production (PL): Dolina Cybiny 0.6 40
Ehra-Lessien (D): Vogelmoor 3.9  
Mlada Boleslav, Production (CZ): Radouci 1.2 212
Emden (D) 0.9 400
Vrachlabi, Production (CZ): Krkonose 1.1 23
Hanover (D): Leine 0.75 118
Kvasiny, Production (CZ): Uh inov-Benàtky 5 42
Ingolstadt (D): Training ground 3.8 200
Martin, Components (SK): Malá Fatra < 5 12.4
Kassel (D): Fuldatal 1.6 280
Bratislava, Production (SK): Moravy < 2 178
Leipzig (D): Tannenwald, Strohgäu 0 20
Palmela, Production (POR): Arrabida 3.5 24.5
Neckarsulm (D): Jagst, Kocher 0.1 95
Barcelona, Production (ES): Llobregat 3.6 39.3
Osnabrück (D): Mausohr, Belm 5.45 36.1
Martorell, FE, Production (ES): Llobregat 0.85 800
Salzgitter (D): Heerter See 7.5 280
Pamplona, Production (ES): Pena de Etxauri 15 163
Stuttgart (D): Max-Eyth-See 0.75 28.8
Prat, Components (ES): Llobregat 0.7 15.5
Weissach (D): Enztal, Stuttgarter Bucht 0.05 84.9
Brussels, Production (B): Verrewinkel- Kinsendael 3 44
Wolfsburg (D): Barnbruch 0.2 800
Györ, Components (HU): Göny i homokvidék < 1 30
Zwickau (D): Zwickauer Muldetal 0.1 180
Crewe (UK): West Midlands Moor 5.7  
Polkovice, Components (PL): Jelonek 7.9  
Polkovice, Sitech (PL): Jelonek 3.2  
 
*Area = Surface area of the production location.